As fire increases in severity, more vegetation is killed, more forest floor is consumed, and it becomes more likely that the physical properties of the soil and watershed are changed. Prescribed fire can increase soil movement by ravel on steep slopes, but has a negligible effect on mass wasting.
What are examples of mass wasting?
Mass wasting is the movement of rock and soil down slope under the influence of gravity. Rock falls, slumps, and debris flows are all examples of mass wasting. Often lubricated by rainfall or agitated by seismic activity, these events may occur very rapidly and move as a flow.
What triggers mass wasting?
Mass-wasting events are triggered by changes that oversteepen slope angles and weaken slope stability, such as rapid snow melt, intense rainfall, earthquake shaking, volcanic eruption, storm waves, stream erosion, and human activities. Excessive precipitation is the most common trigger.
Does ice wedging causes mass movement?
Ice wedging breaks apart so much rock that large piles of broken rock are seen at the base of a hillside called talus. Gravity causes abrasion as a rock tumbles down a mountainside or cliff. Moving water causes abrasion as particles in the water collide and bump against one another.
What is the greatest danger from Earthflow?
What is the greatest danger from earthflow? In deserts of southwestern North America developers often build houses in dry stream beds and build only minimal subsurface drainage systems to handle a flow of water comparable to the size of the dry stream channel.
What is the difference between mass wasting and erosion?
Erosion is the physical removal and transportation of weathered material by water, wind, ice, or gravity. Mass wasting is the transfer or movement of rock or soil down slope primarily by gravity.
How can we prevent mass wasting?
Engineering solutions include barriers and retaining walls, drainage pipes, terracing the slope to reduce the steepness of the cuts, and immediate revegetation. Rockfalls can be controlled or eliminated by the use of rock bolts, cables, and screens and by cutting back slopes to lesser gradients.
Which mass wasting phenomenon is the fastest?
A rock fall are the fastest of all landslide types and occurs when a rock falls through the air until it comes to rest on the ground—not too complicated.
What are the four types of mass wasting?
Types of mass wasting include creep, slides, flows, topples, and falls, each with its own characteristic features, and taking place over timescales from seconds to hundreds of years.
Which type of mass wasting moves rapidly and can be deadly?
Which type of mass wasting moves rapidly and can be deadly? SELECT TWO. That's right! Flows (debris flows especially) and rock falls can move very quickly, making them dangerous.
What are 4 causes of mass movement?
The causes of mass wasting include an increased slope steepness, increased water, decreased vegetation and earthquakes.
Which mass movement is the fastest?
Landslides and avalanches can move as fast as 200 to 300 km/hour. Figure 3. (a) Landslides are called rock slides by geologists. (b) A snow avalanche moves quickly down slope, burying everything in its path.
What is the slowest mass wasting process?
Creep – the very slow, usually continuous movement of regolith down slope. Creep occurs on almost all slopes, but the rates vary.
How does mass movement affect humans?
As human populations expand and occupy more and more of the land surface, mass movement processes become more likely to affect humans. The table below shows some of the most deadly movement processes since 1900. In a typical year in the United States, landslides cause over $2 billion in damages and 25 to 50 deaths.
What is rockfall mass movement?
Rockfall is a form of mass movement or mass wasting in which pieces of rock travel downward through some combination of falling, bouncing, and rolling after they are initially separated from the slope. Although some sliding may occur as the rock is becoming detached, sliding is a minor component of the process.
What is spread mass movement?
e) Spreads: A spread is an extension of a cohesive soil or rock mass combined with a general subsidence of the fractured mass of cohesive material into softer underlying material. The rupture surface is not a surface of intense shear. Spreads may result from liquefaction or flow (and extrusion) of the softer material.
What are 3 types of weathering?
Weathering is the breakdown of rocks at the Earth's surface, by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity. It does not involve the removal of rock material. There are three types of weathering, physical, chemical and biological.
What is Flow mass movement?
Types of mass movement Flows are a mixture of water, rock and sediment. They move very quickly. Large flows can bury entire villages. Smaller flows can block roads.
What are the six types of mass movements?
Types of Mass Movement: Creep; Fall, Slip, Flow; Solifluction; Rock Glaciers; Slumping (Earthflow); Mudflow (lahar); Debris Flow, Debris Slide, Debris Avalanche; Rockslide; Rockfall; Debris Fall.
What are five examples of mass movements?
Mass Movement Types