Proteus vulgaris Proteus vulgaris is an facultative anaerobe
What does Proteus vulgaris look like?
Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped, nitrate-reducing, indole-positive and catalase-positive, hydrogen sulfide-producing, Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. It can be found in soil, water, and fecal matter.
What size is Proteus vulgaris?
Proteus Vulgaris is a rod shaped Gram-Negative chemoheterotrophic bacterium. The size of the individual cells varies from 0.4 to 0.6 micrometers by 1.2 to 2.5 micrometers. P. vulgaris possesses peritrichous flagella, making it actively motile.
Is Proteus vulgaris a gram-negative bacteria?
Proteus species are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gram-negative bacilli. The first isolates were reported and characterized by Hauser in the late 19th century. The genus is currently composed of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus penneri, Proteus hauseri, Proteus terrae, and Proteus cibarius.
How does Proteus vulgaris move?
Proteus is a gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae family (Brooker 2008). Under the microscope it is rod shaped, motile (can move due to its flagella) and has a characteristic “swarming” ability that allows it to migrate across catheter surfaces (Armbruster 2013).
What diseases does P. vulgaris cause?
P. vulgaris, previously considered biogroup 2, has been reported to cause UTIs, wound infections, burn infections, bloodstream infections, and respiratory tract infections (71, 137).
Where is P. vulgaris found?
Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris are commensals of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract, but they also can be found in water and soil. There are opportunistic pathogens that can infect the lungs, or wounds, and frequently cause urinary tract infections.
How is P. vulgaris transmitted?
INFECTIOUS DOSE: Unknown. MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Proteus spp. are part of the human intestinal flora 1 3 – 5 and can cause infection upon leaving this location. They may also be transmitted through contaminated catheters (particularly urinary catheters) 1 4 5 or by accidental parenteral inoculation.
Is Proteus vulgaris VP positive?
The VP test was negative, confirming the positive MR test results indicating that the organism is a mixed acid fermenter, which is true of Proteus vulgaris. The Enterotube was read after a 24-hour incubation and coded, which confirmed our results: the isolated gram-negative bacteria were shown to be Proteus vulgaris.
What is the treatment for Proteus vulgaris?
For hospitalized patients, therapy consists of parenteral (or oral once the oral route is available) ceftriaxone, quinolone, gentamicin (plus ampicillin), or aztreonam until defervescence. Then, an oral quinolone, cephalosporin, or TMP/SMZ for 14 days may be added to complete treatment.
How do you get Proteus bacteria?
How is Proteus mirabilis transmitted? The bacterium spreads mainly through contact with infected persons or contaminated objects and surfaces. The pathogens can also be ingested via the intestinal tract, for example, when it is present in contaminated food. The germs spread quickly because they are very agile.
Does P vulgaris ferment sucrose?
P. vulgaris fermented glucose, sucrose, and maltose readily, while P. mirabilis fermented glucose readily and sucrose slowly and did not ferment maltose.
What are the symptoms of Proteus?
- asymmetric overgrowths, such as one side of the body having longer limbs than the other.
- raised, rough skin lesions that may have a bumpy, grooved appearance.
- a curved spine, also called scoliosis.
- fatty overgrowths, often on the stomach, arms, and legs.
How did Proteus vulgaris get its name?
It was on the island of Pharos that Proteus [Figures 2 and 3], the sea god, lived. Proteus had the ability to change shape and form to avoid capture by his enemy, hence the name given to the bacteria.
What antibiotic is Proteus mirabilis resistant to?
mirabilis confers a high level of resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination but a low level of resistance to ticarcillin (Bret et al., 1996). IRT-2-producing P. mirabilis remains susceptible to the combination ticarcillin-clavulanate, piperacillin and cephalothin (Table 1) (Bret et al., 1996).
Is P vulgaris aerobic?
Proteus vulgaris Proteus vulgaris is an facultative anaerobe, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It causes urinary tract and wound infections. In recent years, the resistances to many antibiotic classes (also beta-lactams) has significantly increased.